The name "Noologistic Control Technology" (NCT) is derived from the ancient Greek words νόος – noo (reasonable) and logitsich - logistics (art of counting). NCT's name reflects its features that are: it is the real-time extreme control technology that not uses statistical information, has no self-oscillations and takes into account all categories of environmental impacts. It is designed to the multidimensional industrial facilities of any complexity, size and productivity, for example, to the grids of water, heat, gas, oil, energy, chemistry facilities, etc. NCT has been tested at real facilities.
The mathematical apparatus and algorithms contained in the NCT eliminate problems of an Optimal Control in Automatic Control Systems (ACS), Smart Grids (SG) and Digital Twins (DT) of industrial facilities (see below). The NCT transforms any existing ACS, SG, and DT into the appropriate Noologistic Control Systems (NCS) under minimal cost. It is easily compatible to the SCADA, Cloud Technologies and the Internet of Things.
The problems of Optimal Control that have been eliminated by NCT
The first problem is the lack of personal the opportunity to change the setting of Optimal Control in the direction of achieving, for example, maximum productivity, minimum total costs or the lowest possible environmental impact. An Optimal Control also does not give to the personal the opportunity to change the current mode of operation of the facility from maximum productivity or savings to maximum environmental friendliness and vice versa.
Moreover, an Optimal Control does not guarantee that it provides the really best solution for the personal in each specific situation because it does not provide to the personal with any choice between the extremes mentioned above. The personal is not able to verify how is optimal to him the current mode that set by Optimal Control, that is, how much this mode corresponds to its current needs and what opportunities he has to safely change the mode when his needs change. Therefore, the personal's opinion on the quality of existing Optimal Control is based on trust in authority the vendors of the appropriate ACS, SG and DT, the quality of satisfying other needs and the absence of other offers of higher control quality.
The NCT eliminates the aforementioned first problem by replacing Optimal Control of industrial facilities with Extreme Control of them. Because Extreme Control mathematically accurately provides either an extremely productive mode of operation, or an extremely economical, or extremely environmentally friendly or compromise between these extremes modes of operation of the entire multidimensional industrial facility or its part. An Extreme Control also gives to the personal the opportunity to change the current mode of operation of the facility from maximum productivity or savings to maximum environmental friendliness and vice versa.
It is obvious that Extreme Control provides the really best solution for the personal in each specific situation because it gives him a choice between the extremes mentioned above. For example, if the personal needs to set the facility's operating mode with a specific performance at the minimum total costs, then Extreme Control provides the total costs less than Optimal Control in the same conditions. Moreover, the Extreme Control gives to personal the opportunity to check whether the established mode is really extreme, and what possibilities he has for its safe change in the other direction. So the total amount of saving money, fuel and energy resources through the use of Extreme Control in the industries is from 8% to 12% compared to the best Optimal Control.
The second problem of the Optimal Control is the large total costs due to the use of statistical information in it. It requires the creation of gigantic and expensive storages of statistical information (Big Data), expensive means of transmitting information (special computer networks) and it’s processing (software and supercomputers) for the large-scale industrial facilities. Experts predict that the global total costs of Big Data technologies in 2020 will exceed $ 120 billion and will increase further.
The NCT eliminates the aforementioned second problem of the Optimal Control by eliminating the use of statistical information. It uses only current information in the cycle due the algorithm: “1 - collected current information, 2 - checked its reliability, 3 - calculated the magnitude of the current extreme control actions, 4 - performed control actions, 5 - deleted the information used, 6 - moved on to the next cycle." Therefore NCT does not require the Big Data technologies, i. e. the creation of giant expensive storages of statistical information and expensive means of transmitting and processing it.
It is obvious that NCT does not exclude the preservation of statistical information and the use of Big Date technologies for the purposes of analysis, planning, forecasting, design, etc.
The third problem of Optimal Control is the extremely long duration of calculating the control actions for a large-scale multidimensional industrial facility, even using supercomputers. It may last several days for a large country, for example, for gas supply grid of the USA, China, Russia, etc due to the need to process a huge amount of statistical information and the use of a large number of iterative calculation cycles. Obviously, for automatic control of any object in real time, the calculation time should be less than a second. Therefore, to reduce the calculation time from 10 days to 0.01 second, the performance of computers for Optimal Control should be increased approximately 107 times (10*24*3600 / 0.01 = 8,640,000 times) compared with modern supercomputers. Modern science and technology can’t to do this in the near future.
The NCT eliminates the third problem of Optimal Control in three parallel ways, including:
1 – by a refusal to use statistical information. It reduces the required computer performance by approximately from 1.2*10^5 to 6*10^5 times;
2 – by the calculation of the magnitudes of the extreme control actions in one step, i.e., without repeating the cycles of iterative calculations. It reduces the required computer performance by about from 1.5*10^2 to 2*10^2 times;
3 – by the using of Information Pyramid Technologies. It reduces the required computer performance by approximately from 10^8 to 10^11 times.
Therefore, the NCT provides a total reduction in the required computer performance by approximately from 1.8*1016 to 1.2*1019 times (from 1.2*10^5 * 1.5*10^2 * 10^8 to 6*10^5 * 2*10^2 * 10^11 times). This means that the NCT will solve its task by means of a regular office computer from 1.8*10^8 to 1.2*10^12 times (from 1.8*10^15 / 10^7 to 1.2*10^19 / 10^7 times) faster than Optimal Control will solve it’s task by means of a supercomputer. The calculation time for this task in the NCT will be from 0.048 to 0.00000072 seconds (from 10*24*3600 / 1.8*10^8 to 10*24*3600 / 1.2*1012 seconds). Therefore, the NCT can to control any large-scale industrial facilities in real time using the regular office computers.
The fourth problem of Optimal Control is the lack of synchronization to the real time of the movement speed of the executive bodies of automatic controllers. Their movements are carried out by steps, but for the mentioned synchronization, they must be moved at speeds that at each moment of time must provide compliance to the regulation law specified by the personal in the current operating conditions.
The NCT eliminates the fourth problem of Optimal Control by mathematically accurate movement of the actuators of all automatic controllers under the speeds that at every moment provide compliance to the control law specified by the personal at the current operating conditions.
The fifth problem of Optimal Control is the possibility of self-oscillations in its automatic control systems due to step movement of executive bodies of automatic controllers. Their occurrence transfers the facility into unstable operation. Therefore, a description of the tuning methods of automatic controllers to prevent the occurrence of self-oscillations by changing the magnitude of the steps of movement of the executive bodies takes approximately 70% of the automatic control theory.
When testing the NCT on real objects, it has been found that the possibility of self-oscillations disappeared due to the refusal of step movement of the executive bodies of automatic regulators, as well as due to the accurate calculation and execution of their movement speeds.
The sixth problem of Optimal Control is the account only the environmental impact at the place of use of the equipment. It do not accounts other impacts associated with its use. This contributes to the wrong choice of technology and equipment for the development of grids. The result may be an increase in the total global impact of grids on the environment, while reducing some types of local impacts.
NCT takes into account not only the environmental impacts at the place of use of the equipment, but also takes into account other impacts associated with its production, transportation, installation, commissioning, as well as the production and transportation of fuel, consumables, etc.
The NCT structure
NCT consists of several interconnected technologies that have their own mathematical apparatus and algorithm for its implementation, including:
1. The Technology of Forecast Calculation in the PRESENT.
It provides synchronization of the entire control process with real time during the execution of control actions.
2. The Technology of Calculating the Indexed Noologistical Area of Possible Operating Modes.
It provides adaptation of the process of managing facilities to actual external influences, their technical condition and permitted modes of their operation.
3. The Technology of Calculation of the Upward Indexed Information Pyramid.
It calculates the Indexed Noologistical Area of Possible Operating Modes of the entire large scale grid and each consumer.
4. The Technology of Calculation of the Upward Non-indexed Information Pyramid.
It calculates the total consumption of products of a large scale grid by all consumers.
5. The Technology of Developing the Managerial Decisions.
It calculates management decision parameters.
6. The Technology of Calculation of the Downward Indexed Information Pyramid.
It calculates a set of values of optimal control actions on each object.
7. The Technology of Calculation of the Speed of Movement the Executive Body of the Regulator.
It calculates the speed of movement of the executive body of the regulator of each object.
8. The Technology of Calculation of the Downward Non-indexed Information Pyramid.
It calculates the parameters of the allowed limits of the operation modes of all objects that work together as parts of a complex object.
9. Technology for calculating depreciation of conditionally constant environmental impacts.
Transfer of total values of conditionally constant impacts on energy generated in each equipped device.
10. The Technology of Implementation the Control Action.
It synchronizes to a real time the speed of movement of the executive bodies of the automatic controllers of all one-dimensional facilities that make up the multidimensional facility.
More details – see http://www.noologistics.ru